Paternity testing based on DNA analysis has become a routine procedure in providing evidence for the relationship between the biological father and child as well as in case of eliminating any doubt of the child’s father or mother with respect to paternity of that child. DNA paternity testing can confirm or rule out biological relationship practically with a 100 % certainty.

The technology applied for sample analysis

Standardised sets of chemical substances are applied in laboratory sample analysis, together with laboratory devices equipped with software designed to analyse specific genetic markers passed on to each individual from his or her biological parents in the 1:1 ratio. Each individual carries in their DNA one version of a genetic marker (allele) from their mother and one from their father. Based on identification of these markers, we can, by direct comparison, find out whether the tested father is or is not the child’s biological father. Simultaneously, we can calculate the paternal probability of the tested man in relation to the child. Currently applied methods allow accuracy exceeding 99.9 % in case of proving paternity (this value is labelled as practically proving paternity) and as much as 100 % in case of eliminating the probability of paternity.

Application of paternity testing is not strictly reserved for suspicious men who feel to be cheated on – in practice, we often meet with cases when this type of testing was applied in relation to entitlement to heritage, if a woman became pregnant at a time of changing life partners and she wished to make sure, which of them is the biological father, but also when biological samples need to be identified, e.g. in case of a kidnapping, after disasters or to identify bodies buried is mass graves.

Types of paternity tests and their specifics

  • 1. Prenatal paternity testing – this test is conducted before the child is actually born. Sampling for this sort of tests can be carried out after completion of the 10th week of pregnancy (it is necessary to get an appointment in advance). In a small part of the samples (up to 10 %) the result cannot be obtained and the test needs to be repeated due to low level of foetal DNA in the blood of the pregnant woman. If this is the case, the repeated blood sample collection needs to be carried out not sooner than 2 weeks following the first sampling. No fee is charged for this repeated test.
    • a) Informative paternity testing – is designed for pregnant women with a male foetus. In case the pregnant woman is not aware of the foetal sex, she can order a test that will determine the sex of the foetus. The test applies Y-chromosome markers (Y-STR) and therefore cannot be applied if there is a possibility that the potential biological fathers can be male relatives along the male ancestral line (e.g. brothers, father and son, uncle, nephew etc.). Standard procedure analyses the 1st sample from the pregnant woman and 1st sample from the potential biological father of the foetus.


  • 2. Postnatal paternity testing – these are tests conducted after the child is born. Sample is collected with sampling tampons and is totally painless.
    • a) Anonymous paternity testing – collections are carried out by the client with the collection sticks sent by us. Standard procedure analyses the 1st sample from the pregnant woman, 1st sample from the child and 1st sample from the potential biological father. However, sample from the mother is not essential to conduct the test successfully.
    • b) Forensic paternity testing – collection is carried out under supervision of a legal forensic expert, who unambiguously verifies and validates the authenticity and also guarantees the maximum level of confidentiality. This type of testing can serve as evidence in legal proceedings. Standard procedure analyses the 1st sample from the pregnant woman, 1st sample from the child and 1st sample from the potential biological father.

How do I collect suitable sample for paternity testing?

In case of prenatal paternity tests, collection of blood from the participating persons is a standard required procedure. For blood collection, you will need an appointment that can be agreed in advance at +421 908 297 726 or at the following e-mail address: geneton@geneton.sk.

In case of postnatal paternity tests, standard sample collection is procedure is a smear of buccal mucous membrane, when the tampon is rubbed several times along the internal side of the person’s cheek, the tampon is left to dry and the material obtained in this way is then placed inside a shock-resistant container and sent to the laboratory for processing.

Paternity testing can be conducted also on biological samples taken from non-standard materials such as chewing gum, cigarette butt, nail etc. in case the given type of the test enables this type of collection and biological material cannot be obtained in a standard manner. However, this type of material requires individual approach and when analysing non-standard samples, successful identification of DNA profile suitable for conducting the test cannot be guaranteed. In case you would like to apply for processing of a non-standard type of samples, you need to get information in advance at +421 908 297 726 or at the following e-mail address: geneton@geneton.sk.

How do you guarantee anonymity in an anonymous paternity test?

Samples are labelled solely by numerical identifiers selected by the person ordering the test and therefore the identity of the tested persons remains fully anonymous. Moreover, after the test result is sent to the client, the biological material is not stored in the archive but it is disposed to ensure an even higher degree of privacy protection for the person ordering the testing.

How do I obtain the sample collection kit for an anonymous paternity test?

Collection set is provided free-of-charge after you send us your contact details to geneton@geneton.sk, or you may contact us at +421 908 297 726. Should you prefer personal pick-up of the collection kit, the date and time as well as place of pick-up can be agreed at the above email address or phone number.

What are the prices of paternity tests in case of standard and non-standard conditions of sample collection?

While complying with global standards and applying internationally used collection kits and devices, we offer paternity testing conducted with standard procedures. The collection is carried out at the locations recommended by us, or with collection kits provided by us. In a standard period of time needed to conduct necessary analyses, we carry out the respective procedures on the basic sampling unit (1x mother, 1x child, 1x potential father) while charging the following fees.

Standard turnaround time of the analysis is defined as the number of work days starting from the day following the sample delivery and the day the account of Geneton s.r.o. is credited with the respective amount due as the testing fee until the day when findings report is sent to the client. It can differ not only based on the type of test conducted, but also based on type of samples submitted for analysis.